Judge's Cave

Title

Judge's Cave

Description

In 1649, King Charles I was tried in court by a panel of 135 of England’s finest judges, lawyers, and prominent citizens. “Whereas Charles Steuart Kinge of England is and standeth convicted attaynted and condemned of High Treason and other high Crymes” (The Death Warrant of King Charles I. 1648). Among these 135 men were Edward Whalley, William Goffe, and John Dixwell, all Puritans that lived under what they perceived as the cruel tyranny of the Roman Catholic King. These men fought for their freedoms to practice their faith and were at the forefront of the triumphant religious war against the monarch starting in 1642 and ending in 1651. After the Civil War, the Puritans lived at ease, and the regicides lived lavishly, Whalley even owned a house previously owned by the late King’s wife. That was until the Scottish reinstated Charles II in the year 1650, as he hid away in Scotland from the anger of the Puritans against the monarchy. After being reinstated to power, he issued the Act of Indemnity stating, “Noe Crime whatsoever committed against His Majesty or His Royall Father shall hereafter rise in Judgement or be brought in Question against any of them to the least endamagement of them either in their Lives.” (The Death Warrant of King Charles I. 1648). He thus absolved those that fought in the war. Unfortunately, there were exceptions made for those that had ruled in favor of Charles I’s execution, a death sentence, and Whalley, Goffe, and Dixwell were on this list. The regicides knew they had to escape England, and the ideal place was New England. New England was a safe haven where many Puritans went during the reign of Charles I to escape his mistreatment of Puritans. Whalley and Goffe boarded the Prudent Mary on May 12th and sailed to Boston with an overwhelming amount of support from the colonists, while Dixwell fled to Germany, with many other regicides. On July 27th, 1660, Whalley and Goffe landed in Boston and were welcomed into the home of Daniel Gookin of Cambridge Mass., whom they had met on their way to the New World. Though their start in New England may have been pleasurable, it would not last long. On September 22nd, a royal proclamation was issued granting £100 for the apprehension of any regicide. Many regicides in England were hung and even those that had died were exhumed from their graves and hung on the gallows. When news of this traveled from London to Massachusetts, the colonists grew restless. If a person was caught helping a regicide they could be sentenced to death. People could no longer ignore the law, and the regicides had to leave. On February 26th, Whalley and Goffe left Cambridge in the dark of night, and rode horseback to New Haven, hoping to receive refuge from Reverend John Davenport, who was “eager to host them as soon as possible” (Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut. 46). On March 7th, they arrived in New Haven and the very next day, Massachusetts Gov. Endecott issued a warrant for their arrest, and sent two men, Thomas Kirke and Thomas Kellond, to pursue the judges. Unfortunately, because of this they could not live their free lifestyle any longer and had to go into hiding. On April 28th, Whalley and Goffe moved into the home of William Jones, the son of John Jones, a fellow regicide with whom they had traveled to the new world. Kellond and Kirke arrive in New Haven from Massachusetts Whalley and Goffe made their way to a small mill on the edge of Westville as Kellond and Kirke pursued them. On May 13th, the judges made their way up West Rock, and arrived at a cave on the side of the clif, overlooking the town of New Haven. Luckily, Governor William Leete intercepted Kellond and Kirke, saying that the Regicides were not in New Haven, saving them from discovery. From May 13th to June 11th, the Regicides lived in the cave with provisions sent by a farmer who lived on the edge of West Rock. In the town, trouble was brewing, they were having difficulty encouraging men to run for office, as people did not want to be involved in the consequences surrounding the Regicides. Whalley and Goffe knew that their presence was doing harm to the community, and on June 11th, decided it was time to end their hiding. They devised a plan and went to the Dutch colony of New Netherlands for eleven days and later returned to New Haven to trick the people of New Haven into thinking they had been in New Netherlands. Any person that was under suspicion of hiding them, like Reverend Davenport, was cleared because of this clever deception. They went to Leete, letting him know that they were turning themselves in but wanted one more day to themselves. It was a Sunday. They went to church, and never returned. It is rumored that a young boy saw Whalley and Goffe running through a cornfield back to the safety of the cave on West Rock. (Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut.) In August of 1661, the Judges were hiding in Milford. Goffe described their time there in his diary as “not so much as walking out into the orchard for two years.” (Dunn, Jack. The Diary of General Willaim Goffe, 1982). Connecticut was under the scrutiny of King Charles II, and he had imposed a charter on the colony because they had no affiliation with the crown. Charles II sent fleets of British warships to the colonies to impose his ruling, which scared the colonies thoroughly. The Judges panicked and left Tomkin’s house in Milford for the cave in Westville for a third and final time. They were there only a week when a group of Native Americans found them and compromised the security of their hiding place. On October 13th, 1664, they left New Haven for the remote town of Hadley Massachusetts, headed for a man named Reverend John Russel, arranged by Davenport. Even though life in Russel’s home was difficult, as he had many guests in and out of his house, Whalley and Goffe lived well, having a trade business with the Native Americans and were able to pay Russel for their concealment, sending Russel’s children to Harvard. Also, they were able to have visitors, and people they knew from the war in England came to visit them there, including John Dixwell. After hiding in Germany, he came to New England in 1665, under the alias of James Davis and lived successfully, marrying and having children here in complete secrecy his entire life. In 1674, Goffe wrote in a letter to his wife that Whalley was suffering from a stroke, and in his next letter, Goffe informed her “He is with God now.” (Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut. 2012). It is said that during a church service, Natives attacked the Hadley people, and a spirit came to them, telling them to Arm themselves, leading the fight. They called this spirit the Angel of Hadley, Colonel Edward Whalley, himself. Because of this, soldiers of the Crown came to look for Goffe, and he had to run again after twelve years. He went to Hartford to live with the Bull family, and then to Windsor CT. In his last years we lose track of William Goffe, but it is suspected that he returned to Hadley, to his home for twelve years, where his brother in arms and father in law is buried. Bibliography The Death Warrant of King Charles I. 1648/9 "Charles II, 1660: An Act of Free and Generall Pardon Indempnity and Oblivion.," in Statutes of the Realm: Volume 5, 1628-80, ed. John Raithby (s.l: Great Britain Record Commission, 1819), 226 234. British History Online, accessed April 18, 2018, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/statutes- realm/vol5/pp226-234. (XXXIV) Welles, lemeul Aiken. The Histroy of the Regicides in New England. New York: Grafton Press, 1927 Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut. Charleston: History Press 2012 Dunn, Jack. The Diary of General Willaim Goffe. Flats Press 1982 Plant, David. The Biography of John Dixwell. BCW Project 2009

Creator

Emma Norden

Date

Spring 2018

Description

In 1649, King Charles I was tried in court by a panel of 135 of England’s finest judges, lawyers, and prominent citizens. “Whereas Charles Steuart Kinge of England is and standeth convicted attaynted and condemned of High Treason and other high Crymes” (The Death Warrant of King Charles I. 1648). Among these 135 men were Edward Whalley, William Goffe, and John Dixwell, all Puritans that lived under what they perceived as the cruel tyranny of the Roman Catholic King. These men fought for their freedoms to practice their faith and were at the forefront of the triumphant religious war against the monarch starting in 1642 and ending in 1651. After the Civil War, the Puritans lived at ease, and the regicides lived lavishly, Whalley even owned a house previously owned by the late King’s wife. That was until the Scottish reinstated Charles II in the year 1650, as he hid away in Scotland from the anger of the Puritans against the monarchy. After being reinstated to power, he issued the Act of Indemnity stating, “Noe Crime whatsoever committed against His Majesty or His Royall Father shall hereafter rise in Judgement or be brought in Question against any of them to the least endamagement of them either in their Lives.” (The Death Warrant of King Charles I. 1648). He thus absolved those that fought in the war. Unfortunately, there were exceptions made for those that had ruled in favor of Charles I’s execution, a death sentence, and Whalley, Goffe, and Dixwell were on this list. The regicides knew they had to escape England, and the ideal place was New England. New England was a safe haven where many Puritans went during the reign of Charles I to escape his mistreatment of Puritans. Whalley and Goffe boarded the Prudent Mary on May 12th and sailed to Boston with an overwhelming amount of support from the colonists, while Dixwell fled to Germany, with many other regicides. On July 27th, 1660, Whalley and Goffe landed in Boston and were welcomed into the home of Daniel Gookin of Cambridge Mass., whom they had met on their way to the New World. Though their start in New England may have been pleasurable, it would not last long. On September 22nd, a royal proclamation was issued granting £100 for the apprehension of any regicide. Many regicides in England were hung and even those that had died were exhumed from their graves and hung on the gallows. When news of this traveled from London to Massachusetts, the colonists grew restless. If a person was caught helping a regicide they could be sentenced to death. People could no longer ignore the law, and the regicides had to leave. On February 26th, Whalley and Goffe left Cambridge in the dark of night, and rode horseback to New Haven, hoping to receive refuge from Reverend John Davenport, who was “eager to host them as soon as possible” (Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut. 46). On March 7th, they arrived in New Haven and the very next day, Massachusetts Gov. Endecott issued a warrant for their arrest, and sent two men, Thomas Kirke and Thomas Kellond, to pursue the judges. Unfortunately, because of this they could not live their free lifestyle any longer and had to go into hiding. On April 28th, Whalley and Goffe moved into the home of William Jones, the son of John Jones, a fellow regicide with whom they had traveled to the new world. Kellond and Kirke arrive in New Haven from Massachusetts Whalley and Goffe made their way to a small mill on the edge of Westville as Kellond and Kirke pursued them. On May 13th, the judges made their way up West Rock, and arrived at a cave on the side of the clif, overlooking the town of New Haven. Luckily, Governor William Leete intercepted Kellond and Kirke, saying that the Regicides were not in New Haven, saving them from discovery. From May 13th to June 11th, the Regicides lived in the cave with provisions sent by a farmer who lived on the edge of West Rock. In the town, trouble was brewing, they were having difficulty encouraging men to run for office, as people did not want to be involved in the consequences surrounding the Regicides. Whalley and Goffe knew that their presence was doing harm to the community, and on June 11th, decided it was time to end their hiding. They devised a plan and went to the Dutch colony of New Netherlands for eleven days and later returned to New Haven to trick the people of New Haven into thinking they had been in New Netherlands. Any person that was under suspicion of hiding them, like Reverend Davenport, was cleared because of this clever deception. They went to Leete, letting him know that they were turning themselves in but wanted one more day to themselves. It was a Sunday. They went to church, and never returned. It is rumored that a young boy saw Whalley and Goffe running through a cornfield back to the safety of the cave on West Rock. (Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut.) In August of 1661, the Judges were hiding in Milford. Goffe described their time there in his diary as “not so much as walking out into the orchard for two years.” (Dunn, Jack. The Diary of General Willaim Goffe, 1982). Connecticut was under the scrutiny of King Charles II, and he had imposed a charter on the colony because they had no affiliation with the crown. Charles II sent fleets of British warships to the colonies to impose his ruling, which scared the colonies thoroughly. The Judges panicked and left Tomkin’s house in Milford for the cave in Westville for a third and final time. They were there only a week when a group of Native Americans found them and compromised the security of their hiding place. On October 13th, 1664, they left New Haven for the remote town of Hadley Massachusetts, headed for a man named Reverend John Russel, arranged by Davenport. Even though life in Russel’s home was difficult, as he had many guests in and out of his house, Whalley and Goffe lived well, having a trade business with the Native Americans and were able to pay Russel for their concealment, sending Russel’s children to Harvard. Also, they were able to have visitors, and people they knew from the war in England came to visit them there, including John Dixwell. After hiding in Germany, he came to New England in 1665, under the alias of James Davis and lived successfully, marrying and having children here in complete secrecy his entire life. In 1674, Goffe wrote in a letter to his wife that Whalley was suffering from a stroke, and in his next letter, Goffe informed her “He is with God now.” (Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut. 2012). It is said that during a church service, Natives attacked the Hadley people, and a spirit came to them, telling them to Arm themselves, leading the fight. They called this spirit the Angel of Hadley, Colonel Edward Whalley, himself. Because of this, soldiers of the Crown came to look for Goffe, and he had to run again after twelve years. He went to Hartford to live with the Bull family, and then to Windsor CT. In his last years we lose track of William Goffe, but it is suspected that he returned to Hadley, to his home for twelve years, where his brother in arms and father in law is buried. Bibliography The Death Warrant of King Charles I. 1648/9 "Charles II, 1660: An Act of Free and Generall Pardon Indempnity and Oblivion.," in Statutes of the Realm: Volume 5, 1628-80, ed. John Raithby (s.l: Great Britain Record Commission, 1819), 226 234. British History Online, accessed April 18, 2018, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/statutes- realm/vol5/pp226-234. (XXXIV) Welles, lemeul Aiken. The Histroy of the Regicides in New England. New York: Grafton Press, 1927 Pagliuco, Christopher. The Great Escape of Edward Whalley and William Goffe: Smuggled Through Connecticut. Charleston: History Press 2012 Dunn, Jack. The Diary of General Willaim Goffe. Flats Press 1982 Plant, David. The Biography of John Dixwell. BCW Project 2009

Creator

Emma Norden

Date

Spring 2018

Geolocation